Democracy Discourses through the Internet Communication: Understanding the Hacktivism for the Global Changing

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(www.ojcmt.net/articles/121.pdf)

By : Nofia Fitri

Abstract

The global communication via internet has been fostering the political participation of the public civil into the world orders through several different ways; include the participation of computer virtuosos, called hackers, who have been sponsored the emergent of a new social movement ‘hacktivism’ as a new interest phenomena for the media communication and technology field. This article aims to describe the hacktivism movement as one of the ways of civil people to participate into the global politics through the public sphere, communicate their ideas and promote the principles of democracy using the technology of hacking computer. Within this article I focus on several hacktivism activities emergent since 1990s. My findings have revealed that the hacking politics actions and the social-humanity messages were conveyed by the hactivists encouraged the global circumstances for being more aware and concern on the democracy discourses. Hence I shall conclude that in the modern era of communication and technology the hacktivism has been emerging to promote the freedom of people through the internet and distributes the democracy principles into the global world for the global changing.

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Political-Economy New Orders

Through the New Politic Order of Noam Chomsky, most of students in the political science and international relation have got some new-perspectives by someone who has a high-desire of the better world politic for the future. I’ve been started also this paper with my perspective based of the evidence and some of the opinions by scholars, for only one purpose: which make this world ‘fairly’. ‘Better’ as a word has a general meaning which next would be any progress than now, but the question, better for whom? Within the IPE literatures, perhaps, better is only for developed countries, or better only for one continental, or better only for some institutions. But, ‘fairly’ has a meaning that at the future would be equal, no matter for developed countries or for developing countries. The equal doesn’t mean that same equation within the economic statistic each other, but equal on the ways of institutional treatment, be equal on rights within the market, and be equal in opportunity within the process of economic development.

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Understanding the 2003 United States-Iraq Invasion: A Study of Level Analysis

By Nofia Fitri

I.         Introduction

Within his very famous-controversial book “Hegemony or Survival” Chomsky has quoted from one of the American columnists Patrick Tyler. Tyler wrote “they may still be two superpowers on the planet: the United States (US) meaning state power and world public opinion.”[1] This statement published in the New York Times at 17 of February 2003, one year after George W. Bush through his American president speech gave a labeled for Iraq as a member of “Axis of Evil” along with North Korea and Iran.[2] Afterwards, the US vice president, Dick Ceney announced that Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was seeking weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to dominate the Middle East and threaten U.S. oil supplies.[3]

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NORTH CYPRUS: Between Isolation and Global Economy Expansion

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Umut Ayman and Nofia Fitri (Eastern Mediterranean University)

After 1974’s, the Cyprus island divided into two part of country, South as a Republic of Cyprus which is also a member of European Union and North as a Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC) which its declaration as an independence nation has not been recognized yet by the global community. Thus Turkey provides financial resources and monitors activities in TRNC. In 1986, the TRNC was established. It is an unknown country, except Turkey partially accepts the existence of TRNC and supports it. Therefore TRNC or North Cyprus has been isolated from the global world. But in fact, it is true that isolated country can not develop its economy and will not be affected by the global phenomenon.

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Free Trade Debates and a New-Protectionism

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One of the debates between Trade Liberalization (Free Trade) and protectionism policy (Autarky) is moving among the government role. But with the historical perspectives, can we find out how significance is the government’s role in advanced countries and backward countries with their intervention to trade. This answer would explain why the debate of free trade and protectionism has emerging the concepts of a new-protectionism.

As protectionism policy is closely aligned with anti-globalization and contrast with the Free Trade, where governments barriers to trade are keep to a minimum, in short, this policy is protect business and workers within a country by restricting or regulating trade with foreign nations. Protectionism policies are including tariff, import quotas, administrative barriers, anti-dumping legislation, direct subsidies, export subsidies, and exchange rate manipulation. But because of the movement of this world’s economic cannot be predictable, in the other side, protectionism can be implemented as an explicit-policy. And also sometimes this policy is can be the right choice for states for save their economics problems.

 

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International Political Economy (IPE) and Scholars’ Thoughts

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By: Nofia Fitri

 

The International Political Economy (IPE) phenomena were emerged when the global politics constellation changing after the World War II, they called this ‘the new era of modern economic.’ After the Great Depression of 1930, The Bretton Woods System established (1944). During those times many countries used the concepts of Welfare State by John Maynard Keynes as his published the influential work, “The General Theory of Employment: Interest and Money” about the need of Government Intervention. Thereafter the dynamic of IPE was started, while it continued, the IPE study was closer to its shape. It had been marked when the international financial structure found the agreement, fixed exchange rate, simultaneously with the established of IMF and the World Bank as the world financial institutions.

The deficit of balance of payment among US and Europe brought the Bretton Woods System into its end. Papp stated that the collapse of the Gold Standard and the breakup of the Bretton Woods system (1970s) showed that the established of IPE was began with a world new system, then known widely as interdependent. Within this conditions, as being explained by Papp, United States (US) found out there are emerging many countries with a new-economic power (with abundant of oil especially), and the performed of economic growth on amount of countries. During those times (1930-1980) also one of the important within the beginning of IPE studies, Marxian scholars who sought the economic development problems of developing countries presented the Import Substitution (IS) for the solution, known as Structuralists. This policy had been implied by some countries in Latin America and East Asia.

 

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Libertarian Anarchist in Fostering the Capitalist Authoritarianism Society

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By: Nofia Fitri

“Such freedom may not be given at all, but to a proper subset of individuals. However to make a sense the subset must have more than one member, since it includes only one then we might have a dictatorship. Hence, we demand such freedom for at least two individuals.” (Amartya Sen, the Impossibility of a Paretian Liberal, 1970).

“If they have not moved to the utopian yet, yes they may in dreaming now.” That is my first impression towards the sophisticated idea of Murray Rothbard, a prominent figure of libertarian anarchists’ trend. I have claimed this current thought as ‘a trend’ because on fact the idea of anarchy would disappear since it could not proven that it is not utopian itself. Since the very begin, the idea of anarchist on political term that had been brought by William Godwin, so idealist, as he dreamed “there will be no war, no crime, no administration of justice, as it is called, and no government, besides there will be no disease, anguish, melancholy, or resentment” (William Godwin, 1979) was an impossible aspiration.

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The International Monetary System by OATLEY

The International Monetary System and Contemporary International Monetary Arrangements

Oatley started his explanation of International Monetary System, with the briefly thing, that the sole purpose of the international monetary system is to facilitate international economic exchange, which most countries have national currencies that are not generally accepted as legal payment outside their borders. He stated that even the purpose is looking simple, but the factors that determine how it works are more complex. In this articles Oatley providing a basic understanding of the international monetary system, which he started with the central economic concepts and examines a bit of post-war exchange rate history and continue with the examining of contemporary international monetary arrangements.

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Stiglitz and the Promise of Global Institutions

In The Promise of Global Institutions, Stiglitz tried to give an answer, what is the new is the wave of protest in the developed countries.

 

Critics of Globalization

Stiglitz stated that opening up to international trade has helped many countries grow far more quickly than they would otherwise have done. International trade helps economic development when a country’s exports drive its economic growth. Because of globalization many people in the world now live longer than before and their standard of living is far better. Globalization also has reduced the sense of isolation felt in much of the developing world and has given many people in the developing countries access to knowledge well beyond the reach of even the wealthiest in any country a century ago.

Talked about the proponents of globalization, he stated that, they have been, if anything, even more unbalanced. To them, globalization is progress, developing countries must accept it, if they are grow and to fight poverty effectively, but to many in the developing world, globalization has not brought the promised economic benefits.

 

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Inflation and Stabilization (Haggard)

Why some developing countries have been more successful than others in promoting stable macroeconomic policies?” was become the major question of Haggard in his article. He made an analyzed in Middle-income Latin America and East Asian countries suggests that a combination of interest-group pressure and the nature and design of particular institutions determines the incentives faced by state leaders to pursue stable macroeconomic policies.

As he started the article with the quoted from Albert Hirschman: “The explanation of the inflation in terms of social conflicts between groups, each aspiring to a greater share of the social product, has become the sociologist’s monotonous equivalent of the economist’s untiring stress on the undue expansion of the money supply,” Haggard reviewed some current thinking about the political economy of fiscal policy and advances some hypotheses about differences in inflation and stabilization efforts among middle-income developing countries.

 

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